Most include a link to the penultimate version of the paper in Word--not the published copyrighted version.


To cite a paper, please consult the official published version.

Most are available through links on the Phil Papers Site below.


  • Norms and Necessity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.

  • Ontology made Easy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

  • Ordinary Objects.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2007 (Reissued in paperback 2010).

  • Fiction and Metaphysics.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. (Reissued in paperback 2008. Published in French translation 2011 as Fiction et Metaphysique).

  • Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind. (Edited volume, co-edited with David W. Smith). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.





  1. “What Do Easy Inferences Get Us?” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Forthcoming. 

  2. “A Materialist Reconception of the Mind”, for David Braddon Mitchell and Peter Anstey, eds. Essays on the 50thAnniversary of David Armstrong’s A Materialist Theory of the Mind. (book proposal under review byOxford University Press). 

  3. “Truthmakers and Easy Ontology”, in Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, ed. Karen Bennett and Dean W. Zimmerman, forthcoming. 

  4. “Easy Ontology”, in Routledge Handbook of Metametaphysics, ed. James Miller and Ricki Bliss, London: Routledge, 2020.

  5. Precis of Ontology Made Easy and Replies to Commentators, in Symposium on Ontology Made Easy. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, (2019). 

  6. "What can global pragmatists say about ordinary objects?", forthcoming Javier Cumpa and Bill Brewer, eds. The Nature of Ordinary Objects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press  (2019): 235-59

  7. "If Models were Fictions, then what would they be?", in Peter Godfrey-Smith and Arnon Levy, eds. The Scientific Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2020): 50-73.

  8. "A Pragmatic Method for Conceptual Ethics", in Herman Capellen, David Plunkett, and Alexis Burgess, eds. Conceptual Engineering and Conceptual Ethics. Oxford University Press (2020):435-458.

  9.  “What can Phenomenology bring to Ontology?”. Res Philosophica vol. 96, No. 3, July 2019: 1-19.

  10. Changing Metaphysics: What Difference Does it Make?" Philosophy, Supplement 82 (2018): 139-63.

  11. "How can we come to Know Metaphysical Modal Truths?", in Synthese special issue: New Directions in the Epistemology of Modality. (2018).

  12. "What Can We Do, When We Do Metaphysics?", in Giuseppina d'Oro and Soren Overgaard, eds. Cambridge Companion to Philosophical Methodology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2017).

  13. "Husserl on Essences: A Reconstruction and Rehabilitation", in Grazer Philosophische Studien 94 (2017): 436-59.

  14. “Easy Ontology and its Consequences”,  in Gary Ostertag, ed. Meanings and Other Things: Essays on the work of Stephen Schiffer. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2016): 34-53.

  15. "Why We Should Still Take it Easy", in Mind doi 10.1093/mind/fzv212 (2016): 1-11.

  16. "The Ontology of Social Groups", in Synthese doi: 10.1007/s11229-016-1185-Y (August 2016):

  17. "Metaphysical Disputes and Metalinguistic Negotiation", in Analytic Philosophy (July 2016): 1-28.

  18. "Carnap and the Prospects for Easy Ontology",  in Ontology after Carnap, ed. Stephan Blatti and Sandra LaPointe. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2016): 122-144.

  19. "The Ontology of Literary Works", in John Gibson and Noel Carroll, eds. Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Literature. London: Routledge, (2016): 349-358.

  20. “Fictional Discourse and Fictionalisms”, in Anthony Everett and Stuart Brock, eds. Fictional Objects. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015: 255-74.

  21. “Quizzical Ontology and Easy Ontology”, in Journal of Philosophy CXI, No. 9/10 (October 2014): 502-528.

  22. "The Easy Approach to Ontology: A Defense", in Philosophical Methodology: The Armchair or the Laboratory?, ed. Matthew Haug. London: Routledge, 2014: 107-125.

  23. "It's a Jumble out there: How Talk of Levels Leads us Astray", in American Philosophical Quarterly Vol. 51, No.4 (October 2014): 285-96.

  24. "Deflationism in Semantics and Metaphysics", in Alexis Burgess and Brett Sherman, eds. Metasemantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014: 185-213.

  25. "Public Artifacts, Intentions and Norms", in Pieter Vermaas et. al., eds. Artefact Kinds: Ontology and the Human-Made World. Springer: Synthese Library, Switzerland, 2014: 45-62.

  26. "Fictionalism vs. Deflationism"Mind, October 2013, doi.10.1093/mind/fzt055.

  27. "The Nancy D. Simco Lecture: Norms and Necessity"Southern Journal of Philosophy, 51, No. 2: 143-160 (2013).

  28. "The Ontological Significance of Constitution"Monist 96, no.1: 54-72 (2013).

  29. “Experimental Philosophy and the Methods of Ontology”,  Monist. 95/2. (April 2012): 175-199.

  30. "Research Problems and Methods in Metaphysics", in Robert Barnard and Neil Manson, eds. The Continuum Companion to Metaphysics. Continuum International Publishing: London: 14-45 (2012).

  31. "Fiction, Existence and Indeterminacy", in John Woods, ed. Fictions and Models: New Essays. Philosophia Verlag, 2010: 109-148.

  32. "Modal Normativism and the Methods of Metaphysics", Philosophical Topics, 35/1&2, 2007 (released 2010): 135-160.

  33. "Ontological Innovation in Art", Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 68/2, 2010: 119-130.

  34. "The Controversy over the Existence of Ordinary Objects", Philosophy Compass, 5/7, 2010: 591-601. (Translated into Spanish and reprinted as "El debate sobre la existencia de los objetos ordinarios", in Realismo y Experiencia, ed. Pablo Rychter, Pre-Textos, Colleccion Filosofias, 2016.)

  35. "Fictional Entities", longer review essay in A Companion to Metaphysics, Second edition. Ed. Jaegwon Kim, Ernest Sosa and Gary Rosenkrantz, Blackwell, 2009: 10-18.

  36. "Artifacts in Metaphysics", in Handbook of the Philosophy of the Technological Sciences, ed. Anthonie Meijers. Elsevier Science, 2009.

  37. "Answerable and Unanswerable Questions", in MetaMetaphysics, eds. David Chalmers, Ryan Wasserman, and David Manley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009: 444-471.

  38. "Social Entities", Routledge Companion to Metaphysics, ed. Robin le Poidevin et. al. London: Routledge, 2009: 545-554.

  39. "The Easy approach to Ontology", Axiomathes, 19 (2009): 1-15.

  40. "Non-Descriptivism about Modality: A Brief History and Revival". Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication. Volume 4: 200 Years of Analytical Philosophy. (2009): 1-26.

  41. "Existence Questions", Philosophical Studies, 141 (2008): 63-78.

  42. "Phenomenal Consciousness and the Phenomenal World", Monist 91, No. 2 (April 2008): 191-214.

  43. "Conceptual Analysis in Phenomenology and Ordinary Language Philosophy", in Michael Beaney, ed. The Analytic Turn: Analysis in Early Analytic Philosophy and Phenomenology. London: Routledge, 2007.

  44. "Artifacts and Human Concepts", in Creations of the Mind: Essays on Artifacts and their Representation, ed. Stephen Laurence and Eric Margolis, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

  45. "Metaphysical Arguments against Ordinary Objects", Philosophical Quarterly Vol 6 No. 224: 340-359 (July 2006).2006

  46. "Self-Awareness and Self-Knowledge", Psyche 12/2 (May 2006),

  47. "Debates about the Ontology of Art: What are we doing here?" in Philosophy Compass (Blackwell, Vol. 1 (2006)

  48. "Ingarden and the Ontology of Cultural Objects", Existence, Culture, Persons: The Ontology of Roman Ingarden. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski, ed. Frankfurt: Ontos, 2005.

  49. "First-Person Knowledge in Phenomenology", Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind, ed. David W. Smith and Amie L. Thomasson, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

  50. (co-authored with David W. Smith) Introduction to Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind, ed. David W. Smith and Amie L. Thomasson, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

  51. "The Ontology of Art and Knowledge in Aesthetics", Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63:3 (Summer 2005): 221-229.

  52. "Methods of Categorization", in Achille C. Varzi and Laure Vieu, eds. Formal Ontology in Information Systems: Proceedings of the Third International Conference (FOIS 2004). Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2004.

  53. "Categories", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (first posted 2004).

  54. "The Ontology of Art", in Peter Kivy, ed. The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics, Oxford: Blackwell, 2004: 78-92.

  55. "Fictional Characters as Abstract Artifacts" (reprinted from Chapter 1 of my (1999) Fiction and Metaphysics). In Philosophy of Literature: Contemporary and Classic Readings, ed. Eileen John and Dominic McIver Lopes. Oxford: Blackwell (2004): 144-153.

  56. "Realism and Human Kinds", Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. LXVII, No.3, Nov. 2003: 580-609.

  57. "Speaking of Fictional Characters", Dialectica, Vol. 57, No.2 (2003): 207-226.

  58. "Introspection and Phenomenological Method", Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (2003): 239-254.

  59. "Foundations for a Social Ontology", in Protosociology, Vol. 18-19: Understanding The Social II: Philosophy of Sociality (2003): 269-290.

  60. "Roman Ingarden", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (first posted 2003).

  61. "Fictional Characters and Literary Practices", British Journal of Aesthetics Vol. 43, No. 2 (April 2003): 138-157.

  62. "Ingarden and the Theory of Dependence", published in Polish as "Ingarden i teoria zależności bytowej” (translated by Artur Mordka). ΣΟΦΙΑ Nr. 3 (2003): 243-262.

  63. "Phenomenology and the Development of Analytic Philosophy", Southern Journal of Philosophy vol. XL, supplement (Proceedings of the 2001 Spindel Conference "Origins: The Common Sources of the Analytic and Phenomenological Traditions"): 115-142.

  64. "Ontological Minimalism", American Philosophical Quarterly, Volume 38, No. 4 (October 2001): 319-331.

  65. "Geographic Objects and the Science of Geography", Topoi Vol. 20, No. 2 (September 2001): 149-159.

  66. "After Brentano: A One-Level Theory of Consciousness", European Journal of Philosophy Vol. 8 No. 2 (August 2000): 190-209.

  67. "A Non-reductivist Solution to Mental Causation", Philosophical Studies 89 (1998): 181-191.

  68. "The Ontology of the Social World in Searle, Husserl and Beyond" Phenomenological Inquiry Vol. 21 (October 1997): 109-136.

  69. "Fiction, Modality and Dependent Abstracta", Philosophical Studies 84, Nos. 2-3 (December 1996): 295-320.

  70. "Fictional Characters: Dependent or Abstract? A Reply to Reicher's Objections" Conceptus XXIX, Nr. 74 (1996): 119-144.

  71. "Fiction and Intentionality", Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 56, No. 2 (June 1996): 277-298.

  72. "Die Identität fiktionaler Gegenstände" ("The Identity of Fictional Objects"), Conceptus XXVII, Nr. 70 (1994): 77-95.

  73. "The Reference of Fictional Names", Kriterion 3, No. 6 (1993): 3-12.





  1. "Structural Explanations and Norms: Comments on Haslanger"Philosophical Studies 173: 1 (131-39) (2016). 

  2. "The Ontology of Art", entry in Robert Audi, ed. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 3rd Edition: 742 (2015).

  3. "What can Philosophy Do?"The Philosopher's Magazine, Issue 71, 4th Quarter (2015). 

  4. "I'm Glad I'm Not Real", philosophical short story, in Peter Worley, ed. The Philosophy Shop. (Anthology of philosophical work for children; winner of Best Anthology/Compilation at New England Book Festival). (2012).

  5. "Artifacts and Mind-Independence: Comments on Lynne Rudder Baker’s "The Shrinking Difference between Artifacts and Natural Objects", in APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers, Piotr Boltuc (ed.), 8(1): 25-26 (2008).

  6. "In What Sense is Phenomenology Transcendental?" (comments on Dan Zahavi "Subjectivity and the First-Person Perspective"). Southern Journal of Philosophy (2007).

  7. Review of Crawford Elder Real Natures and Familiar Objects. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (2007).

  8. Review of Wolfgang Huemer, The Constitution of Consciousness: A Study in Analytic Phenomenology. Husserl Studies 23/2 (July 2007): 161-67.

  9. "Two Puzzles for a New Theory of Consciousness", in symposium on Charles Siewert’s The Significance of Consciousness, Psyché (e-journal), Volume 8 (February 2002):

  10. Review of Arindam Chakrabarti Denying Existence, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. LXI, No. 1 (July 2000): 233-235.

  11. Review of D. W. Mertz Moderate Realism and Its Logic, Philosophical Review, Vol. 107, No. 3 (July 1998): 474-477.


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